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(i)They are poikilothermic or cold blooded animals
(ii)They have dry skin covered with scales
(iii)They have homodont dentition
(iv)Reproduction is sexual and fertilization is internal
(v)They did not show parental care for young ones
(vi)They have lungs which are used for gaseous exchange
(vii)They have incomplete developed four chambered-heart
(viii)They have two pairs of limbs
(ix)they are terrestrial animal
(x)They have oviparous mode of reproduction ,i.e., the females lay fertilized eggs.
(i)It gill changes to lung for respiration
(ii)It web leg changes to leg digit for movement
(iii)It fin changes to limb for easy balancing movement.
(iv)it poikilothermic scale change to homoithermic scale
(v)change temperature changes(as it varies)
JUPEB BIOLOGY NUMBER 4
2 Distinctive reproduction
3.spores and sporangia
The following points highlight the nineteen essential features of ferns.
5. Ferns are seedless vascular plants of humid tropics and temperate areas. Some ferns live under sub-arctic conditions as well.
6. They constitute the largest living group of primitive vascular plants with over 10,000 species. Ferns once dominated the earth in carboniferous period.
7. The stem is underground rhizome in most of the ferns. Some primitive ferns have above-ground stem with tree-like habit. They are called tree ferns, e.g., Cyathaea, Celeotium. A tree fern is like a small palm. It may reach a maximum height of 20 m.
8. Roots are adventitious.