ii) example- epidermis
i) identify any exotic pests that may be in their hives,
ii) Examine the brood and colony at least several times a year during spring, summer and autumn.
iii) Always be calm and methodical when working with hives, and try to avoid any sudden or sharp actions.
Opening the hive
2a) *Colostrum feeding*
1. Colostrum is the first milk secreted after parturition.
2. It contains large amount of gamma globulins which are anti-bodies produced by the cow against antigens encounter during her life including those against many disease producing organisms.
1. Separation of calf and making independent of its mother for food is known as weaning.
2. Now days, early weaning is recommended for better management.
1. Arresting the horn growth at an early age, when the horn root is in the bud stage is called disbudding.
2. This is practiced mainly in exotic and cross breeds of cattle.
1. It is the most popular method of identification of farm animals.
2. It facilitates easy supervision, management and accurate record maintenance.
1. To render the animal docile, to control indiscriminate breeding and to prevent certain genital diseases castration is performed.
2. It is also performed to induce faster gain in body weight and to improve the quality of meat.
1. Disinfection means destruction of pathogenic microorganisms from a place so that the place becomes free from infection.
2. Disinfection can be brought about with the help of physical, chemical and gaseous agents.
1. Quarantine is the process of segregating apparently healthy animals (especially animal being introduced into a herd or into the country for the first time) which have been exposed to the risk of infection.
2. Quarantine period depends on the incubation period of diseases.
*Isolation of sick animals*
1. Isolation is the process of segregation of affected and in contact animals from the apparently healthy ones, in the event of outbreak of a contagious disease.
2. Such segregated animals should preferably be housed in a separate isolation shed situated far away from the normal animal house.
*Insuring the animals*
1. It provides protection mechanism to the farmers and cattle rearers against any eventual loss of their animals due to death and to attaining qualitative improvement of livestock and their products.
2. Farmers (small/ large/ marginal) and cattle rearers having the cross breed and high yielding cattle and buffaloes are the eligible beneficiaries.
*Disposal of carcass*
1. The primary purpose of safe disposal of carcass is to ensure the check and spread of disease either to other susceptible animals or humans.
2. Carcasses of animals may be disposed of by sending them to knackeries or by burial or burning.
1. Record keeping is an essential practice in animal husbandry.
2. It needs daily, regular recording the details in the farm office by manager or farmer.
Area of the pasture
Area of trapezium
= 1/2 (180+120)12
= 1/2 x 300 x 12
= 300 x 12/2
(ii) Area of calops crops
20cm x 30cm
= 0.2m x 0.3m
Population of colapo
Maintenance ratio is the type of ration given to farm animal just to maintain normal functioning of the body system.
Production ration is the type of ration given to farm animals to enable them to produce
Maintained ratio: the animal that can feed maintenance ratio are non lactating animals
(i) it can lead to carnibacism
(ii) it can cause fighting between animals
(iii) it can lead to stunted growth
(iv) they are liable to contact disease easily
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