Neco 2019 government essay and obj answer















(v)Political party
(vi)The states

(i)Family : Families perpetuate values that support political authorities and can heavily contribute to children’s initial political ideological views, or party affiliations. Families have an effect on “political knowledge, identification, efficacy, and participation”

(ii)Schools : Spending numerous years in school, children in the States are taught and reinforced a view of the world that “privileges capitalism and ownership, competitive individualism, and democracy.

(iii)Media: Mass media is not only a source of political information; it is an influence on political values and beliefs. Various media outlets, through news coverage and late-night programs, provide different partisan policy stances that are associated with political participation.

(iv)Religion : Religions beliefs and practices play a role in political opinion formation and political participation. The theological and moral perspectives offered by religious institutions shape judgement regarding public policy.

(v)Political parties : Scholars such as Campbell (1960) note that political parties have very little direct influence on a child due to a contrast of social factors such as age, context, power, etc.

(vi)The state : The state is a key source of information for media outlets, and has the ability to “inform, misinform, or disinform the press and thus the public”, a strategy which may be referred to aspropaganda, in order to serve a political or economic agenda.


2a) Authority is the right to exercise power, which can be formalized by a state and exercised by way of judges, appointed executives of government, or the ecclesiastical or priestly appointed representatives of a God or other deities.

Legal authority – based on the ability to influence others based on your official authority and position.

Expert authority – based on the ability to influence others based on your knowledge and expertise

Reverent authority– based on the ability to influence others based on your behavior, manner and approach

Reward authority– based on the ability to influence others by giving or withholding rewards

Punitive authority – based on the ability to influence others by imposing a penalty for fault, offense or violation.


(i)The basis of capitalism is the principal of individual rights, whereas socialism is based on the principle of equality.

(ii)Capitalism encourages innovation and individual goals while Socialism promotes equality and fairness among society.

(iii)In the socialist economy, the resources are state-owned but in the case of the capitalist economy, the means of production are privately owned.

(iv)In Capitalism the competition between firms is very close whereas in Socialism there is no or marginal competition because the government controls the market.

(v)In Capitalism, every individual works for his own capital accumulation, but in Socialism, the wealth is shared by all the people equally.

(vi)In Capitalism every person has the right to freedom of religion which also exists in Socialism, but Socialism gives more emphasis on secularism.


No 5

1. Lack of British personnel : The system had few Europeans to control effectively areas under their control.

2. Poor communication system: The system of transportation and communication was poor and this also necessitated the adoption of indirect rule.

3. The British officials : These officials lacked adequate knowledge of the local area in the country.

4. Insufficient fund: There was no sufficient fund from the British government to engage British officials from direct administration.

5. The system was very cheap: The cost of administration was very cheap and this was because little amount was paid to the traditional rulers used for the system.

6. To satisfy their economic needs : The colonialists wanted to create markets for their goods and to encourage West Africans to produce those raw materials


(i) India’s independence of 1947 which acted as a catalyst for the intensification of the struggle against colonization in Africa, Asia and Latin America.
(ii) The visit of Late President Josef Tito of Yogoslavia to India in 1954.
(iii) The meeting Tito held with Nehru in New Delhi.
(iv) The formation of NATO by capitalist countries in 1949.
(v) The formation of the Warsaw Pact by socialist countries in 1955.
(vi) The Bironi conference held in June 1956 between Nehru, Naseer and Tito.
(vii) The desire of several newly liberated Asian, African, Carribean and Latin American countries to consolidate their hard won independence after long period of colonial rule, racial oppression and domination by Big powers.
(viii) The desire of these newly independent countries to pursue their own political, economic and social development without foreign interference.
(ix) The wish of these newly independent countries to participate in the making of global decisions affecting their future.
(x) The opposition of bi-polarization of the world by Tito and Nehru.
(xi) The competitive accumulation of nuclear weapons and other weapons of mass destruction by the big powers.
(xii) The construction of the Berlin wall and the resumed nuclear testing by Moscow in violation of 1958 understanding with the United States and united Kingdom .
(xiii) Finally the summit conference of 25 states in September 1961 in Belgrade.

(i) Governance : Local government allows indigenes of different local areas to govern themselves according to their traditions and culture

(ii) Law and order : They help in the maintenance of Law and order

(iii) Feeling of insecurity : Local government allays feelings of insecurity and fears of ethnic dominantion especially if created along ethnic lines

(iv) Human and Material resources : They mobilize both human and material resources for community development

(v) Government at grassroots : They bring government nearer to the people at the grassroots

(vi) Leadership training : They encourage leadership training of the people at the grassroots

(vii) Quick decision : Local government facilitate quick decision making in matters within their jurisdiction

No 8

*The basic features of the 1999 constitution:*

1) The Preamble is intended to be a page of contents for the Nigerian legislation. Chapter 1 has general provisions and gives us a general look and summary statements. It has the main rule that the Constitution shall remain the most powerful authority for people and government.

2) The next part is about Government. It claims that the country’s law should be based on the rules of democracy and justice among society. The administration framework in Nigeria is indicated by the constitution and demonstrates that people are working on the presidential arrangement and the President should be taken as the formal head. Segment 130-140 of the 1999 constitution talks about the President of the Federation.

3) The next chapter is dedicated to the territory. All the details that affect the group of people in the country are emphasized here. It also talks about citizenship and ways of achieving this.

4) Chapter 4 is dedicated to the main rights that serve as the foundation of every citizen’s life. Separation of powers can be found in section 4, 5 while section 6 delegates certain powers to be among organs of Government in Nigeria. The Section 4 of the 1999 constitution discusses administrative arm of Government, Section 5 has focuses on the Executive and 6 discusses the individual.

5) Section 5 is about sovereignty and legislature. The power can be characterized as the capacity that a country can control without outside obstruction. Nigeria, due to the 1999 constitution, is a sovereign state, and this fact can be found in segment 2 of the Nigerian law act.

6) Chapter 6 is dedicated to the Executive arm. It discusses the position of a President, candidates, and elections. The second and third parts are dedicated to state executive and other issues.
*Number 9*

– Administrative
– Human Resources
– Peacekeeping
– Mediation

– Administrative . The secretary-general oversees the UN Secretariat , which handles UN operations, including research, translation, and media relations. The Secretariat—the UN’s executive office—has a staff of close to nine thousand people from about 170 different countries. Each secretary-general has handled his administrative responsibilities differently. Hammarskjöld established a system of offices in charge of legal, political, personnel, and budgetary aspects of the secretariat. Boutros Boutros-Ghali streamlined the system by adding under-secretaries-general to oversee operations and report back. During Annan’s administration, the deputy secretary-general position was created to handle day-to-day operations.

– Human Resources. The secretary-general appoints under-secretaries for approximately fifty UN posts, including the heads of funds such as
UNICEF and UNDP . An important aspect of the hiring process involves lobbying from members to fill posts with their nationals, highlighting the secretary-general’s role of negotiating with the Security Council and General Assembly to ensure broad regional representation.

– Peacekeeping . The secretary-general’s office oversees peacekeeping missions and appoints the under-secretary in charge of that department, involving some sixteen operations worldwide as of early 2017. Although the General Assembly or Security Council may initiate a peacekeeping mission, operational control rests with the Secretariat.

– Mediation . As part of his “good offices” role, the secretary-general makes use of his independence and impartiality as the head of a global organization to prevent and stop the spread of conflict. Examples of UN leaders taking on mediation roles in the past include Hammarskjöld’s promotion of an armistice between Israel and Arab states and Javier Perez de Cuellar’s negotiation of a cease-fire to end the Iran-Iraq War. The secretary-general also appoints envoys charged with brokering peace deals. Such envoys report to the Security Council and their appointments can be influenced by the preferences of powerful members of the Council. In February 2017, for example, the United States objected to Secretary-General Guterres’s appointment of former Palestinian Prime Minister Salam Fayyad as envoy to Libya, raising the question of whether such appointments must be approved by the Security Council although the UN Charter gives the secretary-general the authority to make them, says Megan Roberts, associate director of CFR’s International Institutions and Global Governance program.

Question 10
1. National party: The party was more of a national party. The membership spread to almost all parts if the country.
2. It won the second republic presidential election between 1979 & 1983
3. It produced the first executive president for the country
4. It won the governorship election in seven States of the federation.
5. Housing and Agricultural programme scheme was pursued to some extent
6. It helped in educating the members and the public on their political rights
7. The party helped to recruit leaders to political offices in government and within the parties

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