Law of conservation of mass states that energy cannot neither be created nor destroy but changed from one form to another.
Biotechnology is Biotechnology is the use of living systems and organisms to develop or make products, or “any technological application that uses biological systems, living organisms, or derivatives thereof, to make or modify products or processes for specific use.
Biogas is a renewable energy that is gotten from the waste product material
Heavy Chemical are chemical that is manufactured in lager quantities and are required in large quantities in industry
e.g Ammonia, Sodium hydroxide etc…
Avogadro’s Law states that equal volumes of all gasses at the same temperature and pressure contain the same number of molecules.
(i)NaHCO 3 – Sodium hydrogen – trioxocarbonate (iv)
(iii) KMnO4 – Potassium
(iv) H 2 C= C(CL)CH =CH 2
2- Chlorobuta 1,3-diene
(i) Cemment – Calcium oxide and clay
(ii) Glass – Sand, soda, line
(iii) Ceramics – Silica and oxides of magnesium ;Aluminum
Faraday’s first law of electrolysis states that the mass (m) of an element discharged during an electrolysis is directly proportional to the Quantity of electricity (Q) passing through it.
i.e M=Eit (Where E is constant)
1. Purification of metals Eg Cu Hg
2. Electroplating of one metal by another
3. Extraction of element e.g Na,K,H 2 , F2
4. Preparation of certain important compound e.g NaoH
Note: 2 is require.
1. Rhombic Sulphur
Draw a Tabular form as in the picture below ;
Oxidizing agent is an electron acceptor e.g oxygen, hydrogen peroxide and chlorine
Reducing agent is an electron donor e.g
H2(g),C(s) and Carbon(ii)oxide
C(s) – – – – – > CO(g)
Covalent bond cam be define as sharing of electron between two reacting Atom so that both can attain the stable octet structure.
1. No transfer of Electron
2. They are not Electrolytes
3. They are liquid or gas
4. It can dissolve in non-polar solvent
Note: Write just 2
1. Nature of Reactant
2. Surface Area of Reactant
3. Presence of light
4. Presence of catalyst
6. Temperature of reaction mixture