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WAEC 2022 Government Answer

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*1) Feature that make democratic the most porpular system of government*

– Existence of the Constitution
– Popular participation in politics
– Equality before the law
– Periodic election
– Separation of power

1. Existence of the Constitution: In every democratic nation, there is usually the existence of a constitution which is either written or written. A constitution can simply be defined as the fundamental laws or rules which guides a state or society.

2. Popular participation in politics: One the most important features of democracy is popular participation in politics. From the definition of democracy explained above, it is clear that any system which does not encourages people to participate in the political decision making of the government is not democratic.

3. Equality before the law: In a true democratic state, there is equity before the law. This form of government does no encourage the idea that some class of citizens should or should not be punished for their actions. Even the legitimate leaders in a democratic state are forced to face the law during or after their service of the nation.

4. Periodic election: Since the people are the supreme in a democratic state, there is usually a fixed tenure for conducting elections. This is to make sure that the political powers of the state is not concentrated in a single hand.

5. Separation of power: Separation of power is a political concept by Charles-Louis de Secondat, baron de La Brède et de Montesquieu, an 18th century French social and political philosopher. It means that the political powers of a state should not be concentrated in one single hand. It should rather be separated and sheared to avoid dictatorship.



1. Top management:
Top management is an important part of an organization. The job of top management to take important decision related to the organization and also to listen to the complaints of the employees of the organization and provide a solution to them.

#2. Authority to make a decision is in the hand of top management only:

There are different levels of management in an organization to run the organization smoothly, but still, the power to make all important decisions about the organization lies in the hands of the top management and rest, or level of management is supposed to follow the decision taken by the top management.

#3. Information flows from the upper level to lower levels:
the organizations where the centralization process is followed, the information flows from the upper level of management to lower level of management.
The top management is responsible for taking an important decision, and the decision taken by the top management is implemented in the entire organization.
There are flaws in this process as lower management can’t challenge the decision of top management even if they don’t like the decision.

#4. Longer time to make decisions:

The employees of an organization are completely dependent on the decision made by the top management. Sometimes, even if the lower management has effective solutions, they can’t implement them without getting approval from the upper management.
This protocol makes the process quite slow and ineffective.

#5. Centralization is suitable for a small organization:

AS centralization results in slow decision making. It is not suitable for large organizations and makes the decision process complicated.

However, in small organizations due to less number of employees and a few levels of management decision centralization process takes less time in the flow of information from the upper level to the lower level and the implementation.

#6. Inflexible in nature:

In the centralization process, as top management is responsible for taking all the decisions, sometimes they end up making an ineffective decision because they are unaware of the ground reality of the organization.
In such scenarios, lower management has a better capability in taking a decision. Therefore, a decentralized system of management helps in taking effective decisions.



1. To Give Justice to the people:
The first and foremost function of the judiciary is to give justice to the people, whenever they
may approach it. It awards punishment to those who after trial are found guilty of violating the
laws of the state or the rights of the people
The aggrieved (huirt or pained) citizens can go to the courts for seeking redress (rectify &
correct) and compensation. They can do so either when they fear any harm to their rights or after
they have suffered any loss. The judiciary fixes the quantity and quality of punishment to be
given to the criminals. It decidos ull cases involving grant of compensations to the citizens.

2. Interpretation and Application of Laws:
One of the major functions of the judiciary is to interpret (explain or clarify)and apply laws to
specific cases. In the course of deciding the disputes that come before it, the judges interpret and
upply laws. Every law needs a proper interpretation for getting applied to every specific case.
This function is performed by the judges. The law means what the judges interpret it to mean

3. Role in Law-making:
The judiciary also plays a role in law-making. The decisions given by the courts really determina
the meaning, nature and scope of the laws passed by the legislature. The interpretation of laws by
the judiciary amounts to law-making as it is these interpretations which roully define the laws.
Moreover, the judgments delivered by the higher courts, which are the Courts of Records, are
binding upon lower courts. The lattre can decide the cases before them on the basis of the
decisions made by the higher courts. Judicial decisions constitute a source of luw.

4. Equity (fairess) Legislation (law enactment):
Where a law is silent or ambiguous, or appears to be inconsistent with some other law of the
land, the judges depend upon their sense of justice, fairness, impartiality, honesty and wisdom
for deciding the cases. Such decisions always involve law-making. It is usually termed as equity

5. Protection of Rights:
The judiciary has the supreme responsibility to safeguard the rights of the people. A citizen has
the right to seek the protection of the judiciary in case his rights are violated or threatened to be
violated by the government or by private organizations or fellow citizens. In all such cases, it
becomes the responsibility of the judiciary to protect his rights of the people.


(4)[Pick Any FIVE]

(i) Press freedom:
(ii) Bureau of information
(iii) Freedom of speech and association
(iv) Activities of pressure groups
(v) Opinion Poll
(vi) Existence of political parties
(vii) Responsible and responsive

(i) Press freedom: The use of mass media should be maintained.
(ii) Bureau of information: This should be established to receive, compile and disseminate information.
(iii) Freedom of speech and association: By encouraging and allowing freedom of speech and association.
(iv) Activities of pressure groups: By encouraging the activities of pressure groups and other voluntary organisations.
(v) Opinion Poll: Encouraging the use of opinion polls on issues of general importance.
(vi) Existence of political parties: Will help to mould the opinion of the people.
(vii) Responsible and responsive: For eg. Social institutions such as families and religious centres should be able to demonstrate these.


*(NUMBER 5)*

– *Legislative control*
Local governments are established
by an act of parliament or decree
stating their functions, powers and
limitations. Their operations are thus
guided by these laws. Furthermore,
the legislature could amend these
laws or investigate the performance
of, or allegations about particular
local governments.

– *Control By Public*
Complaints Commission
Dissatisfied members of the public
can seek redress through the public
complaints commission, where their
rights and liberties are violated by
local government employees. The
commission could investigate the
activities of such employees and
recommend punitive or corrective

– *Financial control*
The supervising department is
empowered to approve or reject local
government budgetary estimates.
They may not introduce new rates or
levies, implement new projects or
obtain internal or external loans
without approval by the supervising
ministry. Their accounts are also
audited by the central government

– *Judicial control*

Local governments are legal entities
which can sue and be sued. Courts
can call local governments or their
officials to order if theybreach any
law establishing or guiding them.
The courts can declare their actions
illegal or unconstitutional if they
violate the provis

– *Administrative control*

The power of supervising the
activities of local governments is
delegated to the ministry or
department responsible for local
government. The department is
empowered to approve their annual
budgetary estimates, major projects,
strategies of implementation and
bylaws before they take effect.



– The Oba:
The Oba is the highest authority in Yoruba kingdom though not an absolute ruler. He is both political and spiritual head of the Oyo kingdom popularly known as Alaafin of Oyo. Also, the Oba must be the eldest son of deceased king and a member of the royal family. He is well respected by the subject and this explains why some have regarded him to be the ‘working companion of gods’ (Alase Igbakeji Orisa).

– The Ogboni:

The Ogboni cults on the other
hand is often regarded as
secret cult because their
activities are much hidden to
the public. They perform
rituals on behalf of the society,
and also check the excesses of
both the Oba abd king makers.
The group of Ogboni therefore
is headed by Oluawo.

Oyomesi can be regarded as
king makers. They are
prominent chiefs comprising
seven notable individuals
within the community.
Specifically, Oyomesi are the
institutions charged with the
responsibility of appointing the king from a royal family. It is headed by Bashorun.














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